Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue
Executive summary: Ageing, Anti-ageing and Anti-morbidity
With continuously increasing life expectancy, the impact of chronic diseases and dependencies, for which no specific cures are available, also increases. This leads to an enormous burden to individuals and societies alike, which threatens to overwhelm conventional curative and care models in medicine. Unfortunately healthy life expectancy, the number of years spent free of disabilities, has grown slower than life expectancy in a number of countries. Within the European Union, for instance, life expectancy at age 50 has grown by 1.2 years between 2005 and 2010, but healthy life expectancy has only grown slightly (0.5 years in men, 0.4 years in women) in the same time frame (Fouweather et al., 2015). Ageing is a process of progressive decline in the physiological capacity of an organism, manifested by accumulated alteration and destabilization at the whole system level. Generally, oxidative stress is a cause of aging in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content increase, and DNA damage. Aging is also associated with a differential gene expression pattern indicative of a marked or lower stress response of metabolic and biosynthetic genes. Additionally, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and chronic low-grade inflammation known as „inflammaging“ have been proposed as limitations to age span and health span.